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Authority record
Charlotte County Archives

Ardeth Aileen (Emerson) Holmes

  • MC 717
  • Person
  • 1953-2022

Following a period of failing health Ardeth Aileen Holmes (Emerson), St. Andrews, N.B. passed away at the Charlotte Co. Hospital, St. Stephen, N.B. on August 19, 2022, with her husband by her side.

Ardeth was the daughter of the late Murchie and Marjorie (Thornton) Emerson. She leaves behind her beloved husband of forty-one years Jeffrey K. Holmes, her sister Janet Emerson, St. Stephen; her brother-in-law Blaine Holmes, Waweig; aunts Aileen Howson, London, Ontario and Audrey Mitchell, St. Andrews, N.B.; numerous cousins and family friend Chris Flemming. In addition to her parents she was predeceased by her father-in-law and mother-in-law Lester and Madeline (Mady) Holmes, and her brother Ross Emerson.

McColl, Rev. Duncan

  • MC23
  • Person
  • 1754-1830

Born on August 22, 1754 in Appen, Argyleshire, Scotland. Duncan McColl was 20 years old he enlisted in the British army . He arrived in Halifax, Nova Scotia in 1778 and fought in many battles being wounded on several occasions. In 1786 he started his preaching career and traveled long distances in his mission eventually settling in the St. Stephen area with his wife. He traveled to neighbouring communities to preach the gospel. In 1790 the congregation commenced building the first meeting house in the area. In 1812 Rev. Duncan McColl promoted maintaining peace and order along the St. Croix River. In 1815 he gave a Thanksgiving service in Calais for the peace that had prevailed. Mrs. McColl died in 1819. On November 28th, 1830, he preached two sermons and on December 17, 1830, Mr. McColl peacefully died at the age of 87.

Stevenson, Benjamin R.

  • MC42
  • Person
  • 1835-1890

Benjamin Robert Stevenson was born in St. Andrews 10 April 1835, the son of Robert Stevenson and Christina Green Milliken. His paternal grandfather, also Robert Stevenson, had emigrated from Lohwinnoch, Renfrewshire, Scotland and was joined later by Benjamin's grandmother, Janet Crawford with their five sons and one daughter. Two more sons were born in St. Andrews. The Stevensons were a closely knit family and during his lifetime Benjamin kept in close touch with his uncles and aunt.

Benjamin's mother, Christina, was the daughter of Benjamin Milliken who was connected with a prominent Loyalist family of St. George. His branch of the Milliken family settled in Eastport and Christina met Robert Stevenson when her father came to St. Andrews to operate a tannery. Robert had been a shoemaker until the death of Christina's father provided him with the opportunity of taking over the tannery. Thus he became more prosperous than his brothers and was able to give his two sons a good eduction.

Robert Stevenson became a prominent and much respected man in St. Andrews. He was a Charlotte County magistrate and several times Chairman of the Board of Sessions, a school trustee and a member of the Municipal Council. He was President of the Charlotte County Agricultural Society for twenty-seven years. He was also an elder of Greenock Presbyterian Church.

Benjamin, the elder son, was a good student at the Charlotte County Grammar School and attended King's College in Fredericton. He graduated in 1854, a few years before it became the University of New Brunswick. His brother, John Fletcher Stevenson studied medicine, possibly in Boston, and became a physician in St. Andrews. There were no other children.

On his return from Fredericton, Benjamin Stevenson studied law with James w. Chandler, a barrister in St. Andrews. He qualified as an attorney in 1858 and was called to the bar of New Brunswick in 1859. He immediately set up a law office in St. Andrews and became involved in many local activities. In association with another lawyer, G. D. Street, who was his partner at one stage in his career, he founded the St. Andrews Mechanics Institute which appears not to have been very successful. He chose not to join his father's church and became a member of the Church of England although their relatives were Methodists. Many of young Stevenson's close friends were Masons and he became a devoted member of St. Mark's Lodge and remained so throughout his life. He had friends in all walks of life and it was said that he had a reputation for being kind and generous, although he sometimes appeared cold and unfriendly. He also joined the Militia and rose rapidly to the rank of lieutenant. At the time of the Fenian raids he was promoted captain and was on active service for three months commanding a unit known as the "Gordon Rifles". He eventually became a major.

Stevenson found it necessary to deal in insurance to supplement his income. However, he advanced in his profession and, in 1863, he was appointed Registrar of Probate for Charlotte County. He also suffered misfortune. His mother died in the same year and his brother two years later. Young Dr. Stevenson had gone to the United States to take part in the Civil War as medical officer with a black battalion. He was discharged in Florida in the fall of 1865 and died of dysentery on the way home. His brother's estate was one of many wound up by Stevenson in the course of his practice and he also looked after property left behind by people who had left St. Andrews owing to the depressed economy.

Benjamin Stevenson made his first attempt to enter political life in the provincial election of 1865, which was looked on as a test of the willingness of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia to enter a union with the two Canadas. He was a strong supporter of Confederation and, having announced his candidature, he was surprised at the strength of the opposition. His father and some of his friends urged him to withdraw, but he declined.

Stevenson's membership in All Saints Church and his service in the militia had brought him in contact with two young Englishmen, James and John Bolton, whose father, John Bolton, had come from Alnwick, Northumberland, and settled near St. Andrews as a gentleman farmer. They and their sister Katherine became his close friends and their advice was an important factor in his decision to contest the election. His poor showing at the polls was mitigated by the fact that he shared his defeat with veteran politicians.

Pressure from Britain resulted in the dissolution of the legislature and another election in May 1866. It took place when things were beginning to settle down after the Fenian invasion which had disrupted life on the St. Croix and among the islands. There was much indignation that the United States had permitted its territory to be used as a base for attack on its friendly neighbours in New Brunswick and this greatly enhanced the perceived value of the British connection. Nevertheless the supporters of Confederation in Charlotte County were taking no chances. A "Ticket" was formed to ensure that there were only four pro­ Confederation candidates, two Liberals and two Conservatives, two of them from the north and two from the south of the County. Stevenson, a Conservative, was not one of them, withholding in favour of Francis Hibbard of St. George.

The following June, two of the newly elected members, James G. Stevens of St. Stephen and James W. Chandler of St. Andrews, were made County Court Judges and a bye-election was called for October. This must have encouraged Stevenson to believe that his political future was assured and on 1 August 1867, he and Kate Bolton were married. The election followed soon after and Stevenson was elected, taking his seat in the Legislature the following February. In the same year, his brother-in-law, John Bolton, who had had no political experience, took advantage of the lack of interest in federal politics, became a candidate and was elected to the first House of Commons. The following year he sent back accounts of his experiences in Ottawa and Stevenson himself went to see the new capital, travelling by way of the United States to visit his younger uncles who had gone to live in Wisconsin. Bolton's political career was brief as he died in July 1872.

In opening the session of 1870, the Lieutenant-Governor spoke of the need for settlers as new sections of the Province were opened up by railway construction. At the close, an Act was passed to incorporate the New Brunswick Railroad Company with the object of extending the line originally begun by the St. Andrews and Quebec Railway and extended by the New Brunswick and Canada Railway. This section was to run from Woodstock to Edmundston in the northwestern part of the Province.

At that time strongly held political opinions cut across party lines and some members were not committed to either party, which made governments very unstable. An attempt by the Conservatives to seize power, made during Stevenson's first session, was unsuccessful. He was re-elected in June 1870 and when the House met in February 1871, George E. King, a Liberal, was called upon to form a government. King was the author and chief proponent of a bill to reform the New Brunswick school system and knowing that Stevenson, although a Conservative, was in favour of a system that would make education freely available to all, he offered him the post of attorney-general, which he accepted. Unknown to Stevenson, some of his Conservative colleagues, who were against the School Bill, had met and decided how the offices would be allocated if King failed to form a government. According to this plan, Mr. Gough was to be premier and Hibbard attorney-general but Stevenson was not included. King did fail but the Lieutenant-Governor called on E. L. Hatheway, a supporter of the School Bill, who offered Stevenson the post of surveyor-general which he accepted. Hibbard was furious and there was a great to-do in St. Andrews. Stevenson was called home to explain himself, which he did most convincingly. The Common Schools Act, which became law in 1872, set up a system of public, non-sectarian schools and was one of the most important and far-reaching actions of the New Brunswick Legislature.

One of Stevenson's first acts as a minister was in connection with the attempt to develop St. Andrews as a summer resort. The St. Andrews Hotel Act incorporated a company to build a large new hotel, and a second act empowered the Justices of Charlotte County to borrow $5,000 to get it started. Unfortunately the company ran out of money and the hotel was not completed.

Of the greatest importance was the Free Grants Act which Stevenson piloted through the Legislature in 1871. This provided free grants of land to new settlers under clearly defined conditions. Implementation of this act occupied a large part of Stevenson's time during his term as surveyor-general which ended in 1878. He had to deal with agents overseas, shipping companies and hundreds of immigrants, many of them in poor circumstances, and one suspects that he occasionally dipped into his own pocket to assist the sick, starving and homeless. He had a warm heart and found it difficult to resist appeals for help. The settlements formed at that time include Kintore, Kincardine and New Denmark. His records provide a vivid description of the difficulties experienced by immigrants making homes on previously uninhabited land.

The great cost involved in this project led to charges of extravagance and an investigation was held in 1877. It showed that the Surveyor-General's department had been conducted in an honest and able manner and had in fact provided revenue for the government. Mr. Stevenson was said to have administered its affairs with credit to himself and benefit to the province. His work involved a great deal of correspondence and frequent visits to the new settlements.

Naturally Stevenson was concerned with the railroads leading to the new settlements. He became a shareholder and a director of the New Brunswick and Canada Railroad and assisted in getting railroad legislation through the House. In 1886, the managers of the Company decided that there was insufficient traffic to warrant a daily train service to St. Andrews and a furore erupted. This was quelled when Stevenson persuaded the Company to complete the hotel, still standing unfinished, and to provide a daily train service during the summer months. He took personal charge of the work, engaging and paying the contractors, and ordering the furnishings himself. When it finally opened in 1881 it was the first hotel in the Province to operate in the summer only.

During the periods between sessions of the Legislature, Stevenson was active in his business and in many local projects, especially in St. Andrews. He took shares in vessels, and built Stevenson Hall, now the Masonic Hall which was rented for meetings and entertainments and included offices for himself and others. This building remained in the possession of the family until 1929 when it was sold to St. Mark's Lodge. Stevenson had a law office in St. George as well as in St. Andrews and had many friends there. It was probably through Thomas Barry that he became interested in the Bay of Fundy Red Granite Company, established in 1873 and largely financed by some men in New York. He and other friends took stock in the enterprise and he later became President of the Company. He is said to have lost very heavily when it failed.

When Stevenson was re-elected in 1878, he was disappointed that he was given no department, especially as the new premier, John James Fraser, was a close friend. Fraser had difficulty in putting together a government and may have found it easier to offend a friend than an enemy. When the House met in 1879, Stevenson was elected Speaker and continued in this office until 1882.

Stevenson's interest in railways continued until the end of his life. As legal counsel for the New Brunswick and Canada Railroad Company, he handled important litigation and, later, with Sir Leonard Tilley, he organized the building of another railway, the Grand Southern. This line proved to be unprofitable and it is believed that he suffered heavy financial losses.

When the House was dissolved in 1882, it was rumoured that Stevenson was leaving provincial politics and, on 8 June, he was chosen unanimously as the Conservative Candidate for Charlotte in the forthcoming election for the House of Commons. His "forceful" acceptance speech was reported in the newspaper but there was little publicity thereafter. Seemingly, there was much greater interest in the provincial campaign that was going on at the same time. Stevenson had been very optimistic as it was believed that the federal Liberals had very little chance. It was ironic, therefore, that he was defeated by A. H. Gillmor who, as an opponent of Confederation, had defeated him in 1866.

Stevenson then retired from politics and devoted himself to his law practice and to local and railway affairs. He became Judge of Probate, a school trustee and President of the Charlotte County Agricultural Association. He was a warden of All Saints Church, managed the church funds, and was its representative at meetings of the Church Diocesan Society. He also served as Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of New Brunswick. He continued to take an active interest in St. Andrews as a summer resort and the operation of the Argyll Hotel. He and Sir Leonard Tilley were the local representatives in 1888 when the St. Andrews Land Company was formed in association with Robert S. Gardiner and other men from Boston. He was also involved with the Chamcook Water Company. By this time he had become a man of note in the County and, when the St. Croix Cotton Mill was formed in Milltown in 1889, he was invited to lay the corner stone.

Throughout his career, Benjamin Stevenson had been plagued by ill health and he died suddenly in St. Andrews on 16 January 1890 at the age of fifty-four.

McLeod, James

  • MC49
  • Person
  • 1852-1929

James McLeod (1852-1929) was born in St. George, New Brunswick. In the early 1870s he married Nettie (Gates?) who died in 1941. He was a master mariner with Scammell Brothers in Saint John and other shipping companies. Scammell Brothers, a firm of merchants and shipping agents was made up of Joseph H., Walter and Charles H. Scammell.

Maxwell, Edward

  • MC54
  • Person
  • 1867-1923

Edward Maxwell was a Canadian architect. The son of Edward John Maxwell, a lumber dealer in Montreal, by his marriage to Johan MacBean, Maxwell graduated from the High School of Montreal at the age of fourteen and was apprenticed to the firm of Shepley, Rutan and Coolidge at Boston. In 1891 the firm was instructed to design a new building for the Montreal Board of Trade, and Maxwell returned home to Montreal to supervise its construction, helped by having good relations with influential members of the Board. In 1892, the jeweller Henry Birks hired him to design a new shop in Phillips Square. Maxwell also designed several stations and hotels for the Canadian Pacific Railway, including the West Vancouver station and the McAdam station. In 1899 Edward was summoned to Saint Andrews, New Brunswick, by Sir William Van Horne, president of the Canadian Pacific Railway, to assist with architectural work on his summer home 'Covenhoven' on Minister's Island. In 1899, Edward Maxwell bought the Bar Road land and built a modest summer house, which he named "Tillietudlem", an homage to his Scottish heritage.

Girl Guides, Brownies and Rangers Passamaquoddy Division

  • MC571
  • Corporate body
  • 1923-1995

Founded in England in 1909 by Lord Baden-Powell and his sister Lady Baden-Powell, the purpose of the Girl Guides was to educate young females and shape them into positive role models within their communities. The Guiding Movement reached Canada in 1910 and shortly after the Girl Guides, Passamaquoddy Division, headquartered in St. Andrews, was established incorporating young females from the Charlotte County area. Especially active during and after WW2, the Passamaquoddy Division was in frequent contact with the St. Andrews, Scotland Girl Guide Division. Likewise, the Passamaquoddy Division was active in the community and embarked on many camping excursions around the Charlotte County area and beyond. A detailed history of the organization up to the year of their Silver Jubilee in 1961 was written by Guide Historian Rose Haughn.

Guiding was an outgrowth of the Scout movement which swept England in the early 1900’s. Many of the sisters of Scouts thought Scouting such fun they would like to participate so they appeared in numbers at the Crystal Palace Rally in 1909 much to the consternation of the Scout leaders. No gentlewomen in those days appeared in a crowd, much less wearing Scouts hats and all the pots, pans and knives they could tie on. Lord Baden-Powell, who started the Scout movement turned the girls over to his sister, Agnes, who became their first leader and later his wife, Olive – Lady Baden Powell – continued the program of Guiding.
The Guides at Crystal Palace
The first Guide Company in Canada was registered in St. Catherines, Ontario. Fourteen years after the Crystal Palace appearance, girls in St. Andrews first felt the stirrings of interest in Guiding and a Company was formed with Miss Alice Holt as leader and Mrs. Oscar A. Rigby as lieutenant. This was in 1923 and, apparently, this Company lasted about two years although not registered with the Dominion office. The names of these first local Girl Guides are Mildred Rigby, Winifred and Eleanor Snell, Helen Williamson, Frances, Liela, and Bessie Wren, Lucy Stinson, Agnes McMullon, Margaret Harris, Beryl and Betty Stinson, Lois and Phyllis Thompson, Addie and Christine Rooney, Clara McNabb, Mildren Johnson, Thelma Smith, Edith Finigan, Alice MacLaren, Kathleen and Ethel Bell, Melda Calder, and Mildred Holmes.
For the remainder of the “Roaring Twenties” and through the depression of the early thirties, interest in Guiding lapsed. However in 1935 a group of students went to the school principal, then Karl Kierstead, and asked that Guides be organized locally. He in turn passed the request along to the local Kiwanis Club which got together a group of ladies, mostly wives of the members, to discuss the possibilities. As it turned out, Mrs. Earl T. Caughey seemed to be the only person present who had any practical knowledge of Guiding, having been a Ranger with a company at McGill University for a short time. This it was that she became interested in guiding in St. Andrews and is considered its most untiring champion. These ladies brought together by the Kiwanis club formed the first Local Association which was registered May 22, 1936, and found themselves called upon for every emergency.

The First Local Association (L.A.)
Having established a local association, two girls – Lola Graham and Frances Wren were picked to be trained as leaders. As they progressed with their tests, it was decided to call a meeting of the prospective Guides to see if interest still continued. Imagine the consternation when 60 girls presented themselves. They were hastily divided into the 1st St. Andrews Guide Company and the 2nd St. Andrews Guide Company, both of which were registered on May 22, 1936, and two more girls Bessie Rogers and Marjorie Coakley chosen and trained for leaders. All four received their warrants by the early part of 1937. The Guides proceeded as today to win their first and second class and the various badges and from these records are shown the names of the girls in the companies at the time.
The Guides of 1935
In any history of Guiding do not let us forget our “little sisters” the Brownies. Their history too dates back locally to an unregistered pack in 1923 with Brown Owl, Mrs. William Langmaid. This group continued for some time. Then, like Guiding, Brownies were inactive for years. Having got Guides started and fairly well organized, in the fall of 1937 work was started on a Brownie Pack. The 1st St. Andrew Brownie Pack was registered February 3, 1938, and Mrs. Caughey received her warrant as Brown Owl in June of the same year. It is particularly interesting top note that on February 16th, 1938, the Brownies held a party and each of the 19 girls brought a friend, 38 little girls in all, and the party cost $1.75 including enough peanuts for 25 cents for a peanut hunt for everyone.
The first Sea Rangers we hear of was a patrol called “Bluenose” belonging to the 2nd St. Andrews Guides Company. The patrol leader was Frances Wren and the crew were Margaret Anning, Ellen Gibson, Hazel Miller, Edna McGee, Marjorie McDowell, Fae Hallett, Lucy McDowell, Violet Lee, Joanne McCullough and Edith Henderson. The patrol was formed in December 1939 and the girls enrolled in 1940. In November 1947 the patrol registered as S.R.A. “Haida.” They first met in the dressing room at the Knights of Pythias Seaside Hall where their ensign was presented to them by the crew of the battleship Haida and their ship was christened by Mrs. Alfreda Needler. The first skipper was Mrs. David Walker and the first mate was Miss Lillian Shaw. Through the years the St. Andrews Rangers have visited Fredericton, Montreal, Halifax, Charlottetown, and most noteworthy was their visit to Hamilton Bermuda’s S.R.S. “Deliverance.”
Passamaquoddy Division
In December of 1945 the Passamaquoddy Division of Girl Guides was created with Mrs. Caughey as Commissioner. Up to that time guides in this area had belonged to the York-Charlotte Division. Guide Marybel Hachey was the first girl in Charlotte County to receive 1st class. Mrs. Caughey was chosen to attend an International Camp at Morin Heights in the Laurentians as program assistant. The following year she was one of two chosen to represent Canada at Camp Edith Macey, Pleasantville N.Y.
The first county-wide rally was held in June 1947 at Fort Tipperary. The first Division Camp was held at Lake Utopia. Mrs. Alfreda Needler became district commissioner and the Guides had a visit from Mrs. D.E.S. Wishart, Dominion Commissioner of Girl Guides. The following October Miss Daphne Montefiore of Ottawa, Dominion Council Training Leadership also paid a visits.
Shiela Caughey was the first girl in Passamaquoddy Division to receive her Gold Cord which was presented to her by Mrs. George Hartshorn, then provincial commissioner. The following year she attended camp at Ottawa with her mother, Mrs. Caughey in charge of the New Brunswick contingent. This year Mrs. Caughey became the international commissioner.
An international camp was held at Lake Utopia with guides attending from various centers in the United States. This was Coronation year and the Brownies, Guides, and Rangers each entered a float in the Coronation Parade.
Mrs. Oscar A. Rigby was appointed the first District Commissioner in 1938 and served three years, next was Miss Frances Wren, two years; Mrs. Richard H. Smith, three years; Mrs. Earl T. Caughey, two years; Mrs. Alfreda Needler, three years; Mrs. Thomas Grant, one year; Mrs. Harold Johnson, three years; Mrs. Joseph Walsh, six years; Mrs. Neol Tibbo took office in 1961.
The first camp was held at Gibson’s Lake in August 1945 with Mrs. Thomas Grant as commandant. It was purely a district camp with only St. Andrews girls present. Mrs. Grant was assisted by Mrs. Early Caughey, Miss Edith Hanson, and Miss Norma Richardson, and 16 girls attended.
The second camp, although a district camp, received visiting Guides as well and was really a forerunner of the first division camp. It too was under Mrs. Grant as Commandant.
The third camp was held in the Guides Silver Jubilee year, 1961, with Mrs. Joseph Walsh as commandant, assisted by Mrs. Bruce MacVicar of St. George; Mrs. Lewis Day, Mrs. Earl Caughey, Mrs. John Hull, Mrs. Douglas Everett, Mrs. Frank McCracken, and the district commissioner Mrs. Noel Tibbo. 21 guides attended.

Smith, Dr Donne

  • MC646
  • Person
  • 1927-2000

All of the material in the fonds have been given to the Charlotte County Archives by Dr. Donne Smith, his wife Sandy Smith and his Children, Donne, Richard and Barbie Smith with transfer of ownership. One fond-level and a total so far of 14 series-level descriptions and inventory – will allow local and provincial researchers to have access to these important materials dealing with Dr. Donne Smiths contributions to the community, the St Andrews Arena, Lady Dunn/Beaverbrook, Sir James Dunn Academy Board of Trustees, the founding of the St Andrews Medical Centre, the Kiwanis in St Andrews and related charitable efforts of the Sir James Dunn Foundation.

Red Granite Company

  • MC66
  • Corporate body
  • 1860-1884

The Bay of Fundy Red Granite Company had its origin with Charles Ward. In the 1860s Ward, then living in New York, went on a fishing trip in the vicinity of St. George and became fascinated by the huge ledges of red granite to the north of the town. When he returned to New York he initiated a plan to start a company to exploit this resource. The Passamaquoddy Red Granite Company was incorporated in the State of New York in 1872 with Thomas J. Coleman of the firm of Coleman and Volk of New York City. It became necessary to incorporate in New Brunswick, which they did and at the same time changed the name to Bay of Fundy Red Granite Company. In 1884 the Bank foreclosed and an auction sale was held after which the remaining assets of the Company were sold to William Coutts and Alexander Milne, two Scotsmen, who had been employees since its inception.

Campbell, Colin

  • MC69
  • Person
  • d. 1796

A number of Loyalist settlers were named Colin Campbell, but it seems likely that this fonds was created by the Colin Campbell who was the eldest son of the Reverend Colin Campbell, Sr., Rector of Burlington, New Jersey, who arrived in New Brunswick at the end of the American Revolutionary War. Colin Campbell, Jr. was a barrister-at-law at Saint John, N.B., the first clerk of the Crown in the newly-created province of New Brunswick, and the registrar of the Court of Vice Admiralty. In 1781 he married Abigail M. Seabury (d. 1804), a daughter of the Rev. Samuel Seabury, later Bishop of Connecticut. Colin Campbell died on 11 July 1796 at Maugerville, Sunbury County, survived by his wife and two daughters, Maria (Tredwell) and Jane. A daughter Ann Sophia and an infant son predeceased him in 1788 and 1792 respectively.

Ludlow, David

  • MC7
  • Person
  • 1800-1900

David Ludlow of Wilson's Beach, Campobello, was the son of William and Eiliza Ludlow of Campobello. He married Adaline Wheeler of Kinsclear in 1852.

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