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Authority record

Anglican Church. Diocese of Fredericton

  • Corporate body
  • Diocese created in 1845 (originally part of the Diocese of Nova Scotia)

The Anglican Diocese of Fredericton was created on April 25, 1845 by Letters Patent and was initially part of the Diocese of Nova Scotia. The Anglican Church has been present in New Brunswick since 1768 when the Rev. John Eagleson was sent by the British Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts to minister to the people living in the Tantramar area of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.

The first Bishop to serve the Diocese of Fredericton was John Medley, who arrived in Fredericton on June 10, 1845 and continued to serve as Bishop until his death in September 1892. Born in Chelsea, England in 1804, John Medley was educated at Oxford University and was serving as Vicar at St. Thomas' Church in Exeter at the time of his appointment as Bishop. Long-serving and energetic, Bishop Medley presided over the physical and spiritual growth of this Diocese and left a lasting imprint on the Diocese. Bishop Medley quickly established his presence by making regular visitation tours of the province and continued to exert his influence by championing the building of Christ Church Cathedral, 1845-1853, and by presiding over the building or modification of 100 church buildings in the architectural style (Gothic) of which he approved. He also promoted the creation of the Diocesan Synod, which held its first meeting in July 1868 and was incorporated in 1871. The Bishop’s Office and the Synod Office are located in Fredericton.

Sources: Parish Officer Handbook - Part 1, Diocese of Fredericton,

Anglican Church. St. Mary's Chapel-of-Ease (Chatham, N.B.)

  • Corporate body
  • Opened in 1836; original structure burnt in 1964; present structure opened in 1971

The first Anglican church in the Miramichi area of New Brunswick was erected in the early 1800s to serve both Newcastle and Chatham. The Reverend Samuel Bacon oversaw the construction of the Gothic-style church on a site located near both communities. The first service was held at St. Paul's Church at Christmas 1825. Within a short time, members of the congregation expressed dissatisfaction with the distance they had to travel to attend services. In the 1830s plans were drawn to construct St. Mary's Chapel-of-Ease at Chatham to serve Anglicans residing there. Built by contractors Thomas Hodgson and S. J. Frost, the church opened in 1836.

A dispute soon arose over where to hold vestry meetings -- in the parish church of St. Paul's or in St. Mary's Chapel. In 1889 the Reverend David Forsyth took charge of the parish and oversaw renovations to both churches. The chapel was totally destroyed by fire on 12 June 1964 and was not immediately rebuilt due to declining membership. The rectory remained on the site until about 1975 when it was demolished. Eventually, a new St. Mary's Chapel was built of brick and stone on the original site. In 1981 both St. Mary's Chapel and St. Paul's Church were under the leadership of the same priest.

"David's Kingdom" by W. A. Spray, 1979

Archibald, Raymond Clare

  • Person
  • 1875-1955

Born in Stewiacke, Nova Scotia, in 1875, R.C. Archibald was the son of Abram Newcombe Archibald and Mary Mellish. He attended Mount Allison Academy, Sackville, New Brunswick, 1885-1889 and College 1889-1894 graduating with a BA degree (Hon. mathematics) and Teacher's Diploma (violin). He taught mathematics at the Mount Allison Ladies' College and completed an Artist's Diploma (violin) in 1895 before attending Harvard University from which he received BA and MA degrees in 1896 and 1897. He also attended the University of Berlin 1898-99 and received a PhD degree from the University of Strasbourg, 1900.

From 1900-1907 he taught music, mathematics and served as librarian at the Mount Allison Ladies' College. During this time he assembled archival records related to Mount Allison including calendars, student publications, photographs and memorabilia. As the only child of Mary Mellish Archibald, second preceptress of the Ladies' College, the institution was his family.

Dr. Archibald taught 1907-08 at Acadia University but his professional career as a mathematician was spent at Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, where he served as professor from 1908-1955. Author of many academic articles on mathematics, history of mathematics, music and history he founded, built and described the Mary Mellish Archibald Memorial Library (MMAML) Collection at Mount Allison between 1905 and 1955. He died 26 July 1955.

Mary Mellish born in Pownal, Prince Edward Island, January 1849 graduated from the Mount Allison Ladies' Academy in 1867 with an MLA. She taught mathematics and married Abram Newcomb Archibald in 1874. He died in 1883 and Mrs. Archibald returned to serve as preceptress and vice-principal of the Ladies' College from 1885 until her in death 9 January 1901. She was an active member of the Woman's Missionary Society and Women's Christian Temperance Union, president and charter member of the Alumnae Society of the Ladies' College, serving as alumnae representative on the Board of Regents, 1895-1900.

Armstrong, George Eldridge

  • Person
  • 1874-1968

Businessman and sports guide, George Elbridge Armstrong, the son of Celia E. Cronk and Theodore Harding Armstrong, was born 14 February 1874 at Perth, Victoria County, New Brunswick. On 1 February 1905 he married Emma B. Bishop (1877-1950) of Victoria County, New Brunswick, and they had at least three children: Edith Ann (Kenyon), Greta, and Gordon. In his youth, George Armstrong worked in Maine first as a potato-picker, then as a lumberman, and, during the summers of 1895 and 1896, as a hunting and fishing guide.

By the late 1890s, he was taking sportsmen fishing and moose hunting in the Nictau, Bathurst Lakes, Trousers Lake, and Gulquac areas of New Brunswick. He built his first permanent or home hunting and fishing camp, Wapske, near the village of Wapske in the Plaster Rock area. Guests of Camp Wapske hunted moose, caribou, deer, bear, and partridge. Armstrong eventually owned a dozen camps along a 40-mile trail. In connection with his business, he built canoes and was involved in the New Brunswick Guides Association, serving as vice-president in 1903.

George E. Armstrong was involved in a number of other business enterprises. He prepared survey sketches or maps of land in the Miramichi, Plaster Rock, and Bathurst Lakes areas for himself and others. In 1904, Mr. Armstrong brought the first motorcycle in Perth, a Thomas Model 36 for $210.00. Beginning about 1910, he owned and operated a public garage at Perth where he sold cars and automotive supplies. This business was destroyed by fire in May 1934, but was soon rebuilt. In November 1942 he sold Armstrong's Garage to J. E. Armstrong. In addition, George Armstrong served as general manager of the Perth Milling Company Limited, incorporated in 1906 for the purpose of operating lumber and grist mills, which produced laths, clapboards, siding, sheathing, and other wood products. George E. Armstrong died in 1968.

Armstrong, John

  • Person
  • [b. 1818 or 1819]

John Armstrong was born in Ireland in 1818 or 1819 and emigrated to Saint John, New Brunswick, in 1836. He became a merchant and the owner of John Armstrong and Company, a dry goods store located on Prince William Street, Saint John, from ca. 1849 until 1877 when it was engulfed during the Great Fire of Saint John in June that year.
He was married to Jane Jones, born in 1825 or 1826, and they had at least one child, Margaret born in 1848 or 1849. Armstrong owned land in Saint John, Woodstock, Grand Falls, Buctouche and areas of Carleton, Victoria, Kent, Queens and Sunbury counties. He had interests in sawmills and had owned or had shares in ships and boats, including the barque "Jennie Armstrong" and the brig "Maggie".

St. John Business Directory, 1857; Conwell, Russell H., History of the great fire in Saint John, June 20 and 21, 1877; and Census 1851

Arnold, Benedict, General

  • Person
  • 1741-1801

Benedict Arnold was born January 14th, 1741, in Norwich, Connecticut, son of Benedict Arnold, a merchant, and Hannah Mansfield.

The infamy that clings to Benedict Arnold in the American popular mind has obscured the remarkable life a man who was--after George Washington--the ablest general in the Continental Army. He had an apothecary shop and trading business in New Haven in 1761.

When the Revolution broke out in 1775 Arnold was eager to defend colonial liberties against what he regarded as the oppressive policies of th British government. He would take part in numerous campaigns, including the failed invasion of Canada (1775-1776). In 1780, he defected to the British Army. His publicly stated reasons were that he never supported the idea of independence but merely had wished for a redress of legitimate colonial grievances; and he was simply not able to continue supporting the American cause once an alliance with France, "the enemy of the Protestant faith", had been concluded. In reality more likely personal problems he experienced during the war: enemies, accusations of misconduct, court martial, etc. Convinced that a man of his talents deserved better treatment, in May 1779 he began sending military intelligence to the British Commander-in-Chief, Sir Henry Clinton, using at intermediaries the Loyalists Joseph Stansbury and Jonathan Odell. He was made a brigadier-general in the British forces.

In 1781, having abondoned all hope for a future in the colonies he moved to England. There he was still unable to be involved in any substantial way in the war. In 1785 he emigrated to Saint John, New Brunswick, and purchased lot. no. 1329 and established a trading partnership with his son Richard and Monson Hayt. The firm conducted a profitable trade with the West Indies. He was still embroiled in controversy particularly with a lawsuit against Edward Winslow in 1789. The partnership dissolved and Hayt and Arnold were involved in legal actions. Arnold was accused of arson of the business for the insurance money. Arnold was defended by Ward Chipman and Jonathan Bliss. Hayt was found gulity of slander but the damages awarded were minor. Arnold left for England in 1791. Arnold's last years in England were miserable ones. He was still was unable to obtain a military command, was financially not prosperous, and plagued with ill health. He even fought a duel in 1792. He died in 1801.

Dictionary of Canadain Biography, Vol V, 1983

Arnold, Nelson

  • Person
  • 1816-1900

Nelson Arnold (1816-1900) married Anna Maria Smith on 16 May 1854 in Saint John, New Brunswick. The Arnolds had six children. They lived in the area of Sussex, New Brunswick. Nelson Arnold was the Sussex crown land surveyor from 1860-1887.

Source: 1861 Census, Schedule A-F

Arsenault, Joseph Stanislaus

  • Person
  • b. 1901

Joseph Stanislaus Arsenault was born Oct. 11, 1901, the son of Pierre Arsenault and Héléne Bertin. of Bathurst, Gloucester County, New Brunswick. At the age of 23 months, he was kidnapped by gypsies and disappeared. In 1907, a young English-speaking boy, named Willie Hatkins, was found aboard a coastal lumber ship in Rivière Caplan, Gaspé. He had been adopted by Elie Joncas, a lumber inspector with the McLean Company. Willie Hatkins stayed with the Joncas family for 12 years before travelling to Nova Scotia, and later on, to Western Canada and the United States. In 1925, Willie Hatkins was hired by the Bonaventure and Gaspé Telephone Company, where he stayed until 1929.

After the death of his adoptive father, Willie Hatkins, now 30 years old, took up homesteading at St. Elzéar, some 20 miles distant. In 1933, several of Willie Hatkins' friends crossed the Baie de Chaleurs to play ball in Petit Rocher. There, a chance encounter with Pierre Arsenault, a man who strongly resembled Willie Hatkins, led to a series of events resulting in Willie Hatkins (a.k.a. Joseph Stan Arsenault) being reunited with his father, Pierre Arsenault.

Ashburnham family (Fredericton)

  • MS75
  • Family
  • 1855-1938

Thomas Ashburnham, born 8 Apr 1855, was the youngest son of Lord Ashburnham who was head of one of England’s oldest families. Ashburnham served in the 7th (Queen’s Own) Hussars, a cavalry regiment, earning a lieutenant’s commission at age 26 while serving with the 7th Hussars in South Africa. Upon returning to England he was made a captain in the Expeditionary Force which was sent to suppress the Egyptian Rebellion in 1882. In 1885-86, Ashburnham was in Ireland serving as an aide de camp, then on to India from 1886 – 90 where much of his time was spent as member of big game expeditions. After his army career he came to Fredericton where he met Maria “Rye” Anderson and they married in 1903. Rye was born 25 Nov 1858 in Fredericton and was the d/o William and Lucy Ann Anderson.They purchased two buildings on Brunswick St., #’s 163 & 165, which they had joined by a glassed-in conservatory forming a ‘porte cortiere’ and providing access to lawns and gardens in the rear of the property. Unexpectedly in 1913 he became the 6th Earl of Ashburnham with the death of his last surviving brother, who was childless. They took up residency in England but in 1914 returned to Fredericton as Lady Ashburnham was unhappy, not being accepted by the family, and with the impending World War. Once again here they became the centre of the ‘elite social life’. Lord Ashburnham divided his time between Fredericton and England until his death in 1924 and Lady Ashburnham lived in Fredericton until her death in 1938.

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